Python File

The next topic that we need to discuss is about python. Like C, Python File operations. Let us discuss one by one in detailed.

Before going to discuss the various File I/O operations .  So ,let us first discuss

What is a file?

A file is some information (or) data, that stays in the computer storage devices. python supports two types of files namely text file and binary file. Text files are the simple files whereas the binary files contain the binary data. Both humans and machines can read the text files. Whereas the binary files can be read by the only computer.

So in learn python code, we have seen what is meant by a file? Now let us have a look over python file operations

How to create a file?

As said above, python allows you to create the file. With open() we can create a files. This function takes three arguments. The file that you want to open and the kind of operation (or) permission, you want to do it on the file and buffer.

Buffering :

When the buffering value set to zero, no buffering takes place. But if it set to one, while accessing the file, buffering the file.  Usually buffering action takes place if the buffering value greater than one . (with the indicated buffer size). If it is negative , the buffer size is system default.

lt can be done through the following syntax:

f = open(file_name, access mode, buffering)

Ex :

f = open(itguru.txt, w+)

Here, in the above example, ‘W’ stands for write mode and ‘+’ is used to create the file, if it does not exist in the library.

The other operations that can be done with the file are ‘r’ for reading and ‘a’ for append. And we use the ‘+’ sign to create the file if it does not exist in the directory.

So now we have created the file. Now its time to know

How to write data into the file?

As shown in the example, above since we have created the file, its time to add the data into the file. So as of now, I would the add first 10 number (1 to 10) in a file. So to use this concept, we use a loop.


f = open(“balajee.txt”, “w+”)

for i in range(10):

f.write(” %d\r\n” % (i+1))

Output :

This would store the file as












So now we have opened and written the data into the file right, now its time to close the file.

How to close the file?

We can close the file with the following syntax



And other this, we can perform some more operations on the file.

Attribute Description
file.mode It returns the file of the mode in which it is opened It returns the file name
file.softspace It returns false if space is explicitly required with print. Otherwise it true.
flush() It helps to write the buffer of the file system
read() To read the ‘n’ characters from the file.
readline(n== -1) To read and return one line from the file (if specified, it returns the at most ‘n’ bytes
readlines(n=-1) To read and return the list of lines from the file. (if specified, it returns atmost ‘n’ bytes (or) characters.
Writable If the file system can be written , it returns true
write(s) To write string s to the file and returns the number of characters written.
Writelines(lines) To write the list of lines to the file

 So till now, we have discussed how to create, insert the data and close the file. But rather than this python supports some more file operations .let us discuss one –by –one in detailed.

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File Mode operations
Mode Description
r Opens the file in reading mode
r+ Opens the for reading as well as writing. Here the file pointer is placed at the beginning
rb Opens the file in reading mode but in binary format
rb+ Open the file for both readings and writing the file in binary format. The file is placed at the beginning  of the file
W Opens the file for writing. It overwrites the file if the file exists
W+ Opens the file for both reading as well as writing. If the file already exists, it opens the file. And it creates a file for reading and writing
Wb Opens for writing the file. But in binary format only
Wb+ Opens the file for both reading and writing in the binary format. If the file already exists it overwrites the file. And if the file does not exist it creates a new file for reading and writing.
a Opens the file for appending. It does not overwrite the file, but just add the data in the file. And if there is no file, it just creates the file
a+ Opens the file for both reading  as well as  appending. It the file exists, the file pointer is at the end of the file.  And if the file does not exist,  it creates the file for editing
ab It opens the file for appending, but in binary format
ab+ It opens the file for both reading and appending in a binary format. If the file exists, at the end the file pointer is placed. And if the file does not exist, it creates the new file for editing
 File operations

Other than reading, writing, and closing, we can perform some file operations.

Functions Operation Description
File position tell() Informs the current position of the file.
File position changing Seek(offset[,from]) This method changes the current file position. Besides the offset here indicates the number of bytes to the move. By default it is set to zero

From – 0- the beginning of the file

From -1 – current position of the file

From-2 – end of the file

renaming os.rename(current_file_name, new_file_name) Renames the current file name with the new file name
removing os.remove(file_name) Removes the desired file
Directory creation os.mkdir(new_file) This command creates the directory
Working dir os.getcwd() This method displays the current working directory
Removing directory os.rmdir(‘dirname’) This method removes the directory. It takes the file name as an argument
Change directory os.chdir(‘new directory’) This method is used to change the current directory

Hope you got a little idea regarding the file operation. And if you practice those commands of your own, you will get an idea. Feel free to clarify your doubts at python online education

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