Hadoop is an open-source Java framework used to store and process a large amount of data under distributed environment. Generally, unstructured data is distributed among the clusters and it is stored for further processing. Hadoop architecture is a package that includes the file system, MapReduce engine & the HDFS system. Moreover, the Hadoop architecture allows the user to perform parallel processing of data with different components. Such as; Hadoop HDFS, Hadoop YARN, MapReduce, etc.
Hadoop architecture includes master-slave topology. It includes two major nodes such as master node and slave nodes. The master node assigns several tasks to the slave node to perform. The slave node has the responsibility to perform actual computing. Moreover, the master node stores only metadata, whereas the slave node stores the actual data for processing. All this is based on the distributed data file system.
Hadoop architecture includes different types of technologies and components. It helps to solve many complex issues easily. While data processing, when the data files are large they are stored upon different servers. Later the mapping is done to reduce further operations and functions. Moreover, the Hadoop architecture includes three major kinds of layers. Such as-
HDFS refers to the Hadoop Distributed File System. The HDFS helps to store data of Hadoop. It divides the large data into small units known as blocks and stores them on a distribution basis. The architecture includes a NameNode and multiple DataNodes as its major components. Besides, the NameNode performs like a master node and the DataNodes works as slave nodes.
NameNode– The NameNode runs on the master server that is responsible for the Namespace management. Moreover, it regulates the file access by the clients and stores the metadata. It requires very less storage space and computing resources to perform any task. The system also keeps tracking of different blocks of respect to DataNode. Besides, it simplifies the system architecture.
DataNode– The DataNode runs on the slave node that stores the actual business data. Moreover, it splits the data into several blocks and stores on the slave machines for further process like create, delete, and replicate data. Besides, it acts upon the directions of NameNode.
Task tracker- The Task tracker works for a job tracker under the slave node. Its job is to receive tasks and codes from the Job tracker and applies the same on the file. Moreover, this task is also called Mapper.
Map & Reduce- The Map & Reduce layer emerges as the client application submits the MapReduce work to Job Tracker. In response to this, the Job tracker sends a request to the respective task tracker. Besides, when the task tracker fails anyhow, it reschedules the part of the task.
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YARN refers to Yet Another Resource Negotiator. This component is also popular as the resource management layer of Hadoop architecture. It is like a brain of the Hadoop ecosystem that handles all the task performances. These tasks include job scheduling, resource allocation, activity process, etc. There are two major components of YARN, such as Node manager & Resource manager. Besides, the Resource manager passes the various requests to the Node manager. Here, each Data Node is responsible to perform the tasks. The resource manager further divides into two more important components such as Scheduler & Application manager.
Moreover, there is an Application manager also that manages the application lifecycle well along with scheduling tasks. Besides, YARN is the best resource of utilization where the user can run different Hadoop applications. This system uses the YARN framework without enhancing many workloads. The YARN component includes various features such as cluster utilization, multi-tenancy, compatibility, and scalability.
MapReduce is the combination of two components, namely, map and reduce. Moreover, it consists of the major processing components. It helps to write large data sets that use parallel & distributed algorithms under the Hadoop architecture. The Map component performs various tasks such as grouping, sorting, and filtering of operations. Moreover, the Reduce component performs to summarize and gather the results produced by the Map component.
The Map task functions include load, parse, transform, and filter the data. Besides, the map task runs on the node where the actual data is present. Moreover, the map tasks run under different phases. These are the record reader, map, combiner, and partitioner. Further, the reduced task also includes different phases such as shuffle & sort, reduce, output format, etc.
The whole concept of MapReduce explains that the map function sends a query request to different data nodes to process whereas Reduce collects the results.
Furthermore, there are many other components of the Hadoop ecosystem. These are as follows.
An Apache Pig is a kind of language that is useful to process applications in parallel with large data sets under Hadoop architecture. This is an alternative for the Java programming language. Like Java & JVM, there are two major components of Pig such as Pig Latin & Pig run time. The Pig Latin includes SQL commands with less coding. Besides, a non-tech person also can use this component. Moreover, the Map-reduce job executes behind the Pig Latin functions. Here, the compiler performs to convert the Latin into map-reduce job tasks. This useful for complex task processing & also requires different data operations. Furthermore, it also supports various programming languages such as Ruby, Python, Java, etc.
The Mahout component under Hadoop architecture is mostly useful for Machine Learning. It provides the environment set up for developing various Machine Learning applications. Moreover, Machine learning applications learn from past experiences just like Artificial Intelligence performs. Mahout can perform various operations like clustering, filtering, and collaboration.
HBase is known as an open-source non-relational database. It can handle any type of data and supports all major data types under the Hadoop system. This system runs on the HDFS system which is also working on distribution storage supports large data sets. The HBase is written in Java and its applications are written using REST, Avro, etc. Moreover, HBase is developed to solve the problems. In this system, a small amount of data is searched over the large database. The HBase component is designed to store structured data. It includes various rows and columns.
To manage the Hadoop architecture clusters Zookeeper is useful. It provides various reliable, fast, and organized operations and services. The Zookeeper provides a speedy and manageable environment. The system saves a lot of time by performing various tasks such as grouping, naming, maintenance, and synchronizing operations in less time. Moreover, it offers the best solutions for many Hadoop use cases. Many big brands and MNCs like eBay, Rackspace, etc are using Zookeeper for their business operations.
There are some other components of Hadoop architecture such as Oozie, Ambari, etc.
There are many features of Hadoop. These are as follows.;-
Thus, the above details explain the Hadoop architecture and its various components. The Hadoop ecosystem carries various components and features that help to perform various tasks. Moreover, it works on a distributed data system. In this large data sets are segregated into small units. It makes the task complete it in lesser time. Many different features of this ecosystem make it famous among the programming languages.
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