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Post By Admin Last Updated At 2020-09-11
Explain about .Net Framework and Architecture

The .Net framework is a software platform developed by Microsoft organization useful for development. The Net framework helps to build applications that would run on the Windows platform. The 1st version of this framework came into existence in the year 2002. In simple terms, a .Net framework is a virtual machine (VM) for assembling and performing programs written in multiple languages like C#, VB.Net, etc.

This framework is useful to build Form-based applications, Web-based applications, and Web services. Moreover, the .Net framework also provides a lot of functionalities and also supports industry standards. .Net framework supports more than 50 programming languages and a few of them are built by Microsoft.

In short, .Net framework is a;

·        The platform builds for app developers.

·        Framework; supports several languages and cross-language combinations.

·        It also includes an IDE for writing programs.

·        It is a set of utilities or in other words, building blocks of the user application system.

·        The framework provides a Graphical User Interface in the form of GUI.

·        Moreover, .NET is an individual platform but it uses Mono Compilation System (MCS) where it is a mid-level interface.

.Net Framework Architecture

The architecture of the .Net framework is a kind of programming model for the Net platform under which it offers a managed performance environment, development, and deployment in the simplest way. And the integration process with a wide range of coding languages.

Furthermore, the.Net framework architecture is based on some key components that include;

·        CLS- Common Language Specification

·        CTS- Common Type Specification

·        FCL- .Net Framework Class Library

·        CLR- Common Language Runtime

·        CLI- Common Language Infrastructure

Moreover, there are different range of languages that .Net framework supports.

CLS- Common Language Specification

Common Language Specification or CLS includes a set of procedures that specifies a .NET language. Apps build using several coding languages like C# and VB.NET, are shorten down to CLS or Common Language Specification.

CLI- Common Language Infrastructure

The CLI or Common Language Infrastructure provides a language-independent platform for app development and its performance. It also includes the function for exception handling, waste collection, security, etc.

The CLI has the following key features:

  • Handling Anomaly- Anomalies are errors/bugs that occur while the application is executed.

Examples of anomalies or exceptions are as follows:

        In case an application tries to open a file on the local system, but the file is not present.

       In case the application tries to raise some records from a database, but the connection to the database becomes invalid.

  • Waste Collection – Collecting waste or garbage is the process of deleting unwanted resources when these are no longer needed.

Examples of the waste collection are as follows;

  •  A file handle that is no longer useful. In case the application has completed all operations on a file, then the file handle may no longer be useful.
  • Besides, the database connection that doesn’t have longer use. If the application has completed all its operations on a database, then the database connection may no longer be used.
  • Working with different languages

Language – The first level includes the programming language where the most common ones are VB.Net and C# languages.

Compiler – The compiler that exists here may be separate for each coding language. So basically the VB.Net language will have an individual VB.Net compiler. Likely, for C# also user will have another compiler.

CLI– the CLI is the last layer in the net framework. This would be useful to run a .net program built in any coding language. So the afterward compiler will send the coding to the CLI layer to run the .Net application.

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CTS- Common Type Specification

The Common Type System or CTS includes all types of data that are supported by multiple languages. For Example;.NET types.System.Int32, System.Decimal, etc.

CLR- Common Language Runtime

CLR/Common Language Runtime is the fundamental and VM component of the .Net framework. It provides the run-time environment within the .NET framework that runs the programs. By this, it helps the users in making the development process easier. Besides, it also provides different types of services like remote service, type-safety, waste management, durability, etc. Generally, it is responsible for managing the performance of .NET codes nevertheless of any .NET coding language.

FCL- .Net Framework Class Library

The FCL is the collection of all kinds of class libraries, functions, and methods that can be combined with CLR. These can be reusable also. They are also known as the “Assemblies”. It is similar to the header files within C or C++ and packages in the java. The FCL provides different types for strings, dates, numbers, etc. Moreover, the Class Library consists of APIs for reading and writing files, database connections, drawing, and more.

For example, there is a class library having various methods to handle all file-level processes. It means there is a function useful to read the text from a file. In the same way, there is a method to write a text to file.

Generally, the .NET apps are written in the C# or VB coding languages. Besides, the code is joined into a language-skeptic CLI or Common Intermediate Language.

Code Manager

In the .Net framework, the code manager induces class loader for performing operations.

Moreover.NET platform supports two types of coding;

  •  Managed Code
  •  Unmanaged Code

Managed Code

This (managed code) is the resource that exists within the user’s application domain. The resources that are inside the domain are much faster. The code/program that is developed within the .NET framework is a managed code. This code is directly performed by CLR-Common Language runtime using the managed code execution. Any coding language written in this framework is a managed code. The code uses CLR that takes care of user apps by managing memory, managing security, allows multi-language debugging, etc.

Unmanaged Code

This type of code is that which is developed outside the software framework. Unmanaged applications do not run under the direct control of the CLR. There are certain languages such as C++ are useful to write such type of applications. For instance:- accessing low-level functions of the OS. There are a few examples of the unmanaged code such as background affinity with the code of VB, ASP, and COM.

This code can be source code & compile code.

Moreover, this type of code is performed and used with help of wrapper classes.

MSIL- Microsoft Intermediate Language

An MSIL is a language-independent code. When a user compiles code using this framework library, he doesn’t immediately develop any OS-specific native code. Instead of this user compiles code into MSIL or Microsoft Intermediate Language code. Moreover, the MSIL code is not particular to any OS or to any coding language. There are so many codes available in this regard.

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When a user compiles any application, the MSIL code built is stored within an assembly. Assemblies consist of both executable application files that users can run directly from Windows. Here, there is no need for any other codes and libraries (includes extensions) that other apps generally use.

In addition to carrying MSIL code, assemblies also include Meta information (i.e. information about the data that exists within the assembly, known as metadata). And optional resources (extra data used by the MSIL, like sound files and images).

The Meta info allows assemblies to be totally self-expressive. User doesn’t need other data to use an assembly. It means the user avoids conditions like failing to add required data to the system registry, etc. Besides, it may be a problem while developing with other platforms.

Furthermore, it means that placing applications are often as much easier as copying the files into a directory on a remote system. Due to no additional information need on the destiny systems, users can run an executable file from this directory. And (suppose there .NET CLR is installed) the user is good to move on.

Features of.Net framework

There are several features of the .Net framework that offer smooth functioning of operations. These are as follows;

Memory management

In many coding languages, programmers are accountable for distributing and contributing memory and for managing object lifetimes. In .NET apps, the CLR provides various services on behalf of the application. The .Net framework includes all the capability to look after those resources that are not useful by a running program. It would then release or free those resources finally. This is carried on through a program known as the “Garbage Collector”. It runs as part of this major framework. The waste collector runs at regular intervals and keeps on checking all the files, codes, etc.

Common type system

In conventional coding languages, basic types are explained by the compiler that mix-ups multi-language interoperability. In this platform, basic types are explained by the framework type system and are common to all languages that target .NET Framework.

Extensive Class Library

In place of writing large size code to manage usual low-level coding operations, programmers use a readily available library type for this. And they also use their members from the .NET Framework Class Library (FCL).


The platform allows a lot of backend support. In case if the user had an application created on an older version like 2.0 of this framework. And if he tried to run the same application on a system that includes the higher version of the platform, such as 3.5. Besides, the application would still continue to work. This is because Microsoft ensures with every release that the older framework versions also support well with the newer version.


Apps build on the .Net platform can be made to perform on any Windows platform. And now in present times, Microsoft is also imagining to make its products work on other platforms. Like iOS and Linux OS.


The .NET framework includes a good security system. The inbuilt security system helps in both validation and confirmation of apps. Every app can define its security system in a clear and complete manner. Moreover, each security system is useful to allow the user access to the code or to the running program.

Simplified deployment

The .Net framework includes some tools that are useful to package applications built on the .Net platform. Later, these packages can be spread to client systems. Further, the packages would automatically install the application.

Version compatibility

With rare anomalies, apps that are built by using a specific version of.NeT framework run without change in a later version. This is a great thing here.

.NET Remoting

.Net framework Remoting now supports Ipv6 addresses and the exchange of common types. The classes under the System.Runtime.Remoting.Channels.Tcp namespace support authenticates and encrypts using the Security Support Provider Interface. Ultimately, users can now configure the associate cache time-out and the several methods retries. This can enhance the execution of network load-balancing by remote clusters.

Managed Extensibility Framework

The Managed Extensibility Framework or MEF is the latest library within the .NET Framework version 4. This helps users to develop very extensible and designer apps. Moreover, it allows users to define points where an application extension takes place to uncover services to offer to other extensible apps. Further, they are useful to build parts for utilization by extensible apps.

Parallel Computing

The .Net Framework ver.4 presents a new program model for writing multithreaded and asynchronous code. This model greatly clarifies the job of an application and library developers. The latest model allows developers to write systematic, and highly scalable parallel code in a natural idiom. It doesn’t need to work directly with threads.

.NET for Windows Store Apps

The Windows Store Apps built for particular form factors and leverage the power of the Windows OS. A part of the .Net framework 4.5 versions is available for developing Windows Store apps. This is useful for Windows by using C# or VB.

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Advantages of the .Net framework

The following are the key benefits of this great framework.


Everything that users see within the .Net framework is an object. It is similar to what they write within the platform. This means that users get a powerful tool not only accessing purpose. But also control their apps. Moreover, it also makes it simpler & easier for them to respond to repeated events.

Easy Management

Pages, using .Net, are very much simple to write and manage. This is due to the availability of source code and HTML in one place. In addition to this, the source code also performs on the server. This means that it makes users’ web pages more powerful and flexible.


This framework helps users save a lot of time as there is a saying “Time is Money”. The way it is built, .NET ends up a large part of the coding need. It means that the developers save much time. And also the app’s development & delivery time-to-market can be shortened greatly.


Executing usual jobs using the .NET platform is very simple and straightforward. Besides, the submission of forms is very easier, and also there are site design, deployment, and client consent.


There are wide ranges of features that developers reckon in order to build dynamic apps. They also consider the case of its rich features as also the designer in the visual studio (VS). Moreover, they help users to access those features as automatic deployment, drag-n-drop controls, etc.


The handling and monitoring of all the operations are smoothly operating in the platform. If any of the processes becomes lifeless, a new process can be built very easily. Moreover, this allows users to the app to be regularly available for managing requests.


Ultimately, the net platform also stands for its monitoring automation. It will punctually notice any issues such as immense loops, memory leaks, etc. Not only this, but it will also terminate these activities automatically and restart itself.

Wrapping Up

Thus, we reach to a conclusion in this blog on the .Net framework. I hope you got the basic idea of this great software. It helps in developing apps for Windows due to developed by Microsoft Co. The knowledge of the Dot Net will help people to build apps where dot net supports multi-language. To get more updates and practical skills on .Net, one can opt for Dot Net Online Training.