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Post By Admin Last Updated At 2023-05-08
Python for Robotics: Creating Intelligent Machines

Robotics is the combination of fundamental sciences to produce mesmerizing robots that may eventually learn to imitate human morals, behaviors, and characteristics. People of all ages are fascinated and amazed by the field of robotics worldwide.

Robots are capable of autonomous learning, navigation, and decision-making. You can gain more robotics using Python experience by reading this article. More ideas that are directly connected to robots and the field of robotics will be explained. Additionally, I'll demonstrate and explain the Python code I wrote for a robot (Source: My PC). Let's get started right away!

Important Robot Components

In the event of a sudden shift in its immediate environment, a well-built robot will effectively and efficiently make a sensible and logical decision. It will also be able to learn, navigate, and make decisions on its own. The components that are housed onboard, namely the Sensors, are what allow a robot to physically blend in with its environment. In a robotic system, sensors are essential because they decrease the need for human involvement and raise the system's level of autonomy. The following is a list of sensors that are now on the market (however it's important to note that this list is not exhaustive):

  • – Light sensors.
  • – Temperature sensors.
  • – Pressure sensors.
  • – Position sensors.
  • – Hall sensors.
  • – Flex sensors.
  • – Sound sensors.
  • – Ultrasonic sensors.
  • – Touch sensors.
  • – PIR sensors.
  • – Tilt sensors.
  • – Gas sensors.

These are a few types of sensors you may get from electrical retailers. If you pay great attention, you will see that each of these sensors is capable of detecting a particular stimulus in either the nearby or distant environment. You'll see that these elements when combined into a single system, enable any item to react to any input much like a person can.

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The sensor module will identify an input from a source and will produce a certain output in response. In general, a sensor will transform any physical or chemical quantity that is not electrical into electrical impulses. For a sensor to produce a consistent output, the input must be kept constant. For instance, a motion sensor won't produce a red light if nothing is moving nearby. We'll talk about three distinct types of sensors: light, sound, and ultrasonic. 

Light Sensors

The output of these sensor signals is electrical signals, which are the result of this sensor's conversion of light frequency. We can determine the light's intensity from the signal. It operates by measuring the electromagnetic waves that are present in all light frequencies (infrared, visible, and ultraviolet). 

Sound Sensors

This sensor picks up sound waves and turns them into electrical impulses. The diaphragm of the microphone needs to be in working order. This is because sound waves that travel through the atmosphere impact the diaphragm, causing it to shake and alter the readings on the capacitor. The measurements from the capacitor are transformed into digital signals that can be used for processing.

Ultrasonic Sensors:

Reflected sound waves will be turned into electrical sensors using this sensor. The distance between objects can be determined using ultrasonic sensors. A transmitter and a receiver are built-in to the ultrasonic sensor. The receiver will read the sound waves after reflection has taken place. The transmitter will emit a sound wave in the form of piezoelectric signals.

When you use these modest yet capable gadgets in the context of robotics, they'll provide you the ability to use your computer to conduct complex computations. For instance, take Tesla Incorporated, a well-known automaker on a global scale. The sensors used by Tesla cars are positioned all over the vehicle.

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In addition to LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) for object detection, sound sensors for detecting objects nearby, cameras for computer vision, machine learning, and other advanced technology, the Tesla vehicle uses ultrasonic sensors to help with wheel alignment and centering on the road. The driverless vehicle that we see on the roads was made possible by all of these sensors.

Motors

The DC Motor is a popular motor to use while working with Robotics with Python. Direct Current is referred to as DC. Wheels will likely be attached to the output end of the DC motors, meaning that the mechanical energy being outputted will be used to turn the wheels. A DC A motor is an electrical device that converts electrical current into mechanical energy or motion when it is powered. The coil winding, magnets, rotors, brushes, stator, and source current are among the parts that make up a DC motor.

The way this works is that when a current is passed through the coil to power it, a magnetic field is created around the coil that causes the coil to interact with the magnets and eventually causes the coil to rotate, producing mechanical energy. 

Power Switch

A power switch is necessary for turning on and off robots. The robot's power switch acts as a power breaker, stopping the flow of current through the circuitry and enabling the parts to cool. Current passes across the circuit when the switch is turned on; when it is off, the current flow is halted. 

Push Button Switch

This straightforward gadget can permit or disallow control over certain equipment or process. Electrical circuits are used to construct button switches, allowing current to flow across them. Events in our circuit start happening when this current's flow is interfered with.

It is possible to employ button switches in normally on or normally off circuits. When the button is pressed, the current that was previously flowing through the circuit is stopped in a normally-on circuit. Electricity does not connect or flow in a normally-off circuit unless the button is depressed.

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Transistor

A semiconductor with two purposes is a transistor. It can either switch things on or amp up the current. A transistor by definition contains two leads (also known as legs, which are thin metal rods used to connect wires). The transistor acts as a switch, decreasing the current on one side of the leads and increasing it on the other. The transistor acts as an amplifier by accepting electricity into one lead and sending it out the other at a greater current.

Resistor

One of the most well-liked and frequently utilized electronic components is this one. It has two terminals, or "leads" or "legs," and adding one of these to your electrical circuit will add resistance to it. The resistor's functions include dividing voltage, reducing current flow, and adjusting the levels of electrical signals.

Controlling The Robot Components with Python.

Controlling the Push Button Switch.

# we begin by importing the necessary packageimport RPi.GPIO as GPIO # We configure our system to temporarily ignore all warningsGPIO.setwarnings(False) # We set our system to use the physical pin numbering# on the Raspberry PiGPIO.setmode(GPIO.BOARD) # We configure The GPIO pin number 10 on our Raspberry Pi to be# an input pin and we set the initial state of the pin to be# pulled low "PUD_DOWN". This means that the button is in# an "OFF" stateGPIO.setup(10, GPIO.IN, pull_up_down=GPIO.PUD_DOWN) # We set up a While loop that is going to run forever# The While loop is going to constantly check the state of# our Push Button Switch. In the event of our button# being pressed, some words will be printed# to the consolewhile True: # We check if the GPIO pin number 10 is pushed# We check the current running through the button# if the current is highif GPIO.input(10) == GPIO.HIGH: # We print the following wordsprint("Button was pushed!")

 

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Controlling the DC Motor(s)

# we begin by importing the necessary packagesimport timefrom easygopigo3 import EasyGoPiGo3 # We create an instance of the Robot that we are using# If you wish to indulge in the field of Robotics# Navigate to a web browser and search "What is GoPiGo3"# It is interesting :) - you may be persuaded to purchase a unit for yourselfgpg = EasyGoPiGo3() # We configure the motors to move forward for two secondsgpg.forward()time.sleep(2) # We stop all motor movement for one-secondgpg.stop()time.sleep(1) # We drive all motors 50cm forwardgpg.drive_cm(50, True)time.sleep(1) # We turn the motors to the leftgpg.left()time.sleep(1) # We turn the motors to the rightgpg.right()time.sleep(1) # We stop all robot activitygpg.stop() # We print a final message telling us if the script# was successfulprint("Movement Successful!")

 

The Ultrasonic Sensor

You might be wondering how a robot uses an ultrasonic sensor. The region where the robot is now located is mapped using LIDAR using the ultrasonic sensor. Combining an ultrasonic sensor with a servo (motor) enables the ultrasonic sensor to be rotated, allowing the robot to "see" more of its surroundings

This map will allow our robot to view its surroundings digitally, to give a brief explanation of how it works. Since the ultrasonic sensor can measure distance, along with cameras (computer vision) and the created real-time map, we can recognize things and navigate around them.

An "if- statement" that performs the last check to verify if an object is within the given distance of the robot, such as 10 cm, is present at the very end of the code.

Conclusion:

I hope that this article has given you more knowledge about Python Robotics. I advise you to get one or more sensors and a "Breadboard" if you enjoy dabbling with Python, information technology, or robotics in general. Want to get more information on the application of Python programming for Robotics enroll today for Python Course. Contact the OnlineITGuru support team today and register for the free demo