Click to rate this post!
[Total: 0 Average: 0]

The Python requests module allows the user to exchange HTTP requests on the web. It’s a most useful library that helps to send HTTP requests including various methods and features. HTTP is a kind of request-response system that acts between the client and server where the client browser requests server to access it. Here, the web browser is a client and the system that hosts the website is a server.

Moreover, we will deep dive into the various Python requests modules and the types of requests made using Python.

Python requests module

To get started with Python requests we need to install them first. The following way is useful to install the requests.

$ pip install requests

After installing the requests module, we will check into the methods that are useful to request a response from the server.  These are;

GET is useful to request any data from the server.

POST is useful to submit the data to be processed to the server.

Now, in the Python requests module, we need to use some HTTP libraries to make the HTTP requests. These are; httlib, urllib & requests. Here, we will use the requests library. Later, we will look into making a Get request. This is the most common method of requests. The syntax given below will help to get it.

# importing the requests library
import requests  
# api-endpoint
URL = "http://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/geocode/json"
# location given here
location = "delhi technological university" 
PARAMS = {'address':location}  
r = requests.get   
# extracting data in json format
data = r.json()  
# extracting latitude, longitude and formatted address 
# of the first matching location
latitude = data['results'][0]['geometry']['location']['lat']
longitude = data['results'][0]['geometry']['location']['lng']
formatted_address = data['results'][0]['formatted_address']  
# printing the output
print("Latitude:%s\nLongitude:%s\nFormatted Address:%s"
      %(latitude, longitude,formatted_address))

The above example refers to sending and getting the request from the server at the request point. Here, the Python requests library parameters defined as a dictionary. Moreover, we create a response object that helps to store the request-response getting from the server. Besides, to retrieve the data from the response object, we need to convert the raw data into a JSON type data.

Get practical insights into using Python from Python Online Course from the industry experts.

After the Get requests, now we make the POST request. The following command will help to send the Post request.

# importing the requests library
import requests  
# defining the api-endpoint 
API_ENDPOINT = "http://pastebin.com/api/api_post.php"
# your API key here
API_KEY = "XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX"
# your source code here
source_code = '''
print("Hello, world!")
a = 1
b = 2
print(a + b)
'''
# data to be sent to api
data = {'api_dev_key':API_KEY,
        'api_option':'paste',
        'api_paste_code':source_code,
        'api_paste_format':'python'}
r = requests.post
# extracting response text 
pastebin_url = r.text
print("The pastebin URL is:%s"%pastebin_url)

Here, the above commands have taken for example. They explain the process of sending a Post request. Moreover, making a post request we will get the processed data that we look for from any URL. The Post request doesn’t contain any restriction on its data length. Thus, these are suitable for requesting files and images as well.

The Python requests Post method is useful for several other tasks also like filling and submitting any web forms, and postings to social media, etc.

Response Types

The type of response object in the Python requests modules can be a byte, string, or JSON type file. Moreover, the users only allow reading a specific number of bytes by reading raw values in response.

Authentication of request

Authentication is necessary for any requests made by the users. Besides, this required several APIs that allow access to the user for specific details. Moreover, these requests support many types of authentications such as basic Auth and digest Auth.

The Session Object

Since we have seen the dealing with high level requests APIs such as GET() and POST(). these functions are the abstractions of the results upon making the requests. They usually hide the deployment details such as the working of several connections that manage requests, etc.

Moreover, those abstractions are called Session. To put our control over the requests being made or to improve the performance of the requests made, we need to use a Session instance directly in this module. The primary role of the session is the performance optimization of a session. Moreover, it comes in the form of several connections. For example, when our application makes a connection or requests to a server using a Session, it keeps that request within a connection pool.

import requests
from getpass import getpass
with requests.Session() as session:
    session.auth = ('username', getpass())
    response = session.get('https://api.github.com/user')
print(response.headers)
print(response.json())

Moreover, some browsers use cookies that are useful to store the user ID and maintain the login session of the user. These are very small pieces of data that are usually stored on the client’s browser. Besides, there are some other features also like timeout and redirection. The timeout feature allows the requests to terminate the session upon expiration. Besides, it usually happens when there is no proper response from the browser on any requests sent. Finally, the browser redirects the session where we have started. This is a default action of any browser at the time of session failure.

Important points to remember in Python requests module

Here, while using the GET method, all the form data is encoded into the URL. Later, this is attached to the URL that acts as a query string parameter. Moreover, using POST request, the form data usually appears in the message body of the HTTP request that the user makes.

Under the GET method in Python requests modules, the parameter data is limited to infuse into the request line or the URL. It is safe to use fewer parameters, as some servers couldn’t handle much data. Moreover, there is no such kind of problem in the POST method. Here, we should note that we are sending data into the message body of the HTTP requests and not the URL.

In the GET method or request, only ASCII characters are allowed for sending data. But there is no such type of restriction in the POST request module.

Furthermore, the GET request is less secure in comparison to the POST request. Because here the data sent as the request is a part of the URL. Thus, the GET method is not much useful while sending requests for passwords or other sensitive information.

In the programming, a library is a collection of some routines, functions, and operations that a program uses to perform various activities. Besides, these elements or objects are the modules. The libraries or requests are important because the user loads a module or request and takes advantage of everything. Moreover, it offers the results without linking to the program that relies on them. These are truly standalone modules. Using them we can build own programs and also they remain isolated from the other programs.

Conclusion

Thus, the above details explain the Python requests module ad its various aspects. Using these requests any user can request any data or information from the server by placing an order. Moreover, there are many uses of Python requests. The users get to know how to make requests properly towards the web host or the server. Moreover, the HTTP requests play an important role in these request sessions. Using them, any user can get his required data.

Get more knowledge on Python requests and other modules through Python Online Training from the expert voice of IT Guru. This learning may help to enhance skills in this regard to plan for a better future.

 
Drop Us A Query

100% Secure Payments. All major credit & debit cards accepted.

Call Now Button